Article VII. Oil burning equipment

Section 9-37. Definitions.

For the purpose of this article:

"Oil burners" shall mean any device designed to burn fuel oil having a flash point of 100 Deg. F. or higher, as determined by the Tag Closed Tester in accordance with the method of test adopted by the American Society for Testing Materials (A.S.T.M. Designation D56-21), and having a fuel tank or container with a capacity of more than five gallons connected thereto.

"Oil burning equipment" shall include oil burners and all tanks, piping, pumps, control devices and accessories connected to the burners.

(Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-38. Permit required.

It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to install any oil burning equipment unless they shall have been issued on oil burner installation permit for each separate installation. (Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Sec. 9-39. Certificate of approval for oil burning equipment.

(a) Application for certificates of approval shall be made in writing to the town in such form and detail as it shall prescribe.

(b) No certificate of approval shall be issued for any kind of oil burning equipment which has not been tested and examined by the Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., and bears their label of approval.

(c) Certificates of approval may be revoked by the town, after a hearing, for wilful violation of the provisions of this article over which the holder of the certificate of approval has direct control.

(Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-40. Fuel oil.

The grade of fuel oil used with any burner shall be one which tests and experience have shown to be suitable for use with that burner. The oil shall have a flash point not less than 100 Def. F. determined as specified in section 9-37 and shall be free from acid, grit, and fibrous or other foreign matter likely to clog or injure the burners or valves. (Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-41. Use on non-automatic burner limited.

Oil burners which are not equipped with automatic means for preventing abnormal discharge of oil at the burner, shall not be installed or operated in any location where a competent attendant will not be constantly on duty in the room where the burner is located while the burner is in operation. (Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-42. Gravity feed to burner.

(a) When to be used: Gravity feed shall be used only with burners arranged to prevent abnormal discharge of oil at the burner by automatic means specifically approved for the burner with which it is used.

(b) Supply tanks: Gravity supply tanks shall not exceed 275 gallons individual capacity. Where more than one gravity supply tank is used, such tanks shall be connected to the feed pipe leading to the burner in such a way that only one tank can discharge its contents at a time.

(c) Level valve: Where oil is supplied to the burner by gravity and a constant level device is not incorporated in the burner assembly or in an auxiliary tank used in connection with an automatic pump, an approved constant level device shall be installed in the oil feed line at the gravity tank or as close thereto as practicable. The vent opening of such constant level device shall be connected by piping or tubing to the gravity tank vent pipe.

(Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-43. Pressure tank feed.

Pressure tank feed shall be used only with burners arranged to prevent abnormal discharge of oil at the burner by automatic means specifically approved for the burner with which it is used. Pressure tanks shall not exceed a capacity of sixty gallons and shall not be operated at pressures exceeding fifty pounds per square inch. They shall be equipped with a reliable pressure gauge, and with an automatic relief valve piped to discharge outside of buildings. (Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-44. Installation of underground tanks.

(a) Underground tanks shall be so buried as to have a cover of earth not less than 2 feet thick or shall be covered with not less than 1 foot of earth on top of which shall be placed a slab of reinforced concrete not less than 4 inches thick. The slab shall be set on a firm, well tamped earth foundation and shall extend at least 1 foot beyond the tank in all directions. Where tanks are buried underneath buildings such a concrete slab shall be provided in every instance.

(b) Underground tanks shall be set on a firm foundation and surrounded with soft earth or sand well tamped in place. Where necessary to prevent floating, they shall be securely anchored or weighted.

(Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-45. Installation of tanks inside buildings.

(a) Oil supply tanks larger than 60 gallons capacity shall not be located in buildings above the lowest story, cellar or basement.

(b) Unenclosed inside storage tanks and auxiliary tanks shall not be located within 4 feet, horizontally, of any fire or flame.

(c) Inside storage and auxiliary tanks shall be securely supported by substantial incombustible supports to prevent settling, sliding or lifting.

(d) Oil supply tanks located inside buildings shall not exceed 275 gallons individual capacity or 550 gallons aggregate capacity (in one building) unless installed in an enclosure or casing constructed as follows:

The walls of the enclosure shall be constructed of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches thick or of brick at least 8 inches thick, and shall be bonded to the floor. The space between the tank and the enclosure shall be completely filled with sand or well tamped earth. Where the floor or other construction immediately above the tank is of fire-resistive construction capable of safely sustaining a load of 150 pounds per square foot, the walls of the enclosure shall be carried to a height not less than 1 foot above the tank and the space filled with sand or well tamped earth to the top; otherwise the enclosure shall have a top of reinforced concrete at least five inches thick or of equivalent construction.

Instead of an enclosure as above described the tank may be encased in reinforced concrete not less than 6 inches in thickness, applied directly to the tank so as to completely eliminate any air space.

(e) In ordinary buildings the nominal gross capacity of tanks shall not exceed 5,000 gallons.

Section 9-46. Reserved.

Section 9-47. Tank vents.

(a) Storage tanks shall (except for hydraulic or inert gas systems) be equipped with an open vent or an approved automatically operated vent, arranged to discharge to the open air. Vent openings and vent pipes shall be of ample size to prevent abnormal pressure in the tank during filling but no smaller than 1 inch pipe size.

(b) Vent pipes shall be arranged to drain to the tank. The lower end of the vent pipe shall not extend through the top into the tank for a distance of more than one inch.

(c) Vent pipes shall terminate outside of buildings at a point not less than 2 feet measured vertically or horizontally from any window or other building opening. Outer ends of vent pipes shall be provided with a weather-proof hood. Vent pipes of tanks containing heaters shall be extended to such a height that oil vapors discharging from the vent will be readily diffused without danger of ignition.

(d) Vent pipes shall not be cross-connected with fill pipes or return lines from burners.

(Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-48. Tank fill and overflow pipes.

(a) Underground tanks and storage tanks inside buildings shall be filled only through fill pipes terminating outside of buildings at a point at least 5 feet from any building opening at the same or lower level. Fill terminals shall be closed tight, when not in use, by a metal cover designed to prevent tampering.

(b) Auxiliary tanks shall be filled by pumping from storage tanks.

(c) Auxiliary tanks other than vacuum tanks shall be equipped with an overflow pipe draining to the storage tank, at least one size larger than the supply pipe.

(d) Overflow pipes of auxiliary gravity tanks shall have no valves or obstructions. Overflow pipes of auxiliary pressure tanks shall be provided with interconnected valves or other means for automatically venting the tank during filling. (Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-49. Oil gauging.

(a) All tanks in which a constant oil level is not maintained by an automatic pump shall be equipped with an approved method of determining the oil level.

(b) Test wells shall not be installed inside buildings and where permitted for outside services shall be closed tight, when not in use, by a metal cover designed to prevent tampering.

(c) Gauging devices such as liquid level indicators or signals shall be installed so that oil or vapor will not be discharged into the building from the fuel supply system. (Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-50. Oil pumps.

(a) Oil pumps shall be of a type approved by Underwriters' Laboratory, Inc., secure against leaks, and shall be rigidly fastened in place.

(b) Automatic pumps not an integral part of the burner shall be arranged to stop automatically in case of total breakage of the supply line to the burner. (Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-51. Piping.

(a) All piping shall be standard full weight wrought iron, steel or brass pipe with standard fittings or approved brass or copper tubing with approved fittings, except that approved flexible metal hose may be used for reducing the effects of jarring and vibration or where rigid connections are impracticable.

(b) Pipe used in the installation of domestic and industrial type burners shall not be smaller than 1/2 inch iron pipe size. Copper or brass tubing shall not be smaller in size than 1/2 inch O.D. for outside tank installations, nor less than 3/8 inch O.D. for inside tank installation. Flexible metal hose shall be installed strictly in accordance with the limitations of its approval.

(c) Piping shall be rigidly secured in place and protected from injury in a workmanlike manner, and where necessary, shall be protected against corrosion. Where practicable, oil piping shall be buried underground or in a concrete floor or placed in a metal-covered pipe trench.

(d) Pipe joints and connections shall be made tight in a workmanlike manner. Unions and tubing fittings shall be approved type. Unions requiring gaskets or packing, and right and left couplings shall not be used in oil lines.

(e) Proper allowance shall be made for expansion, contraction, jarring and vibration. Pipe lines, other than tubing, connected to underground tanks, except fill lines and test wells, shall be provided with double swing joints arranged to permit the tank to settle without impairing the efficiency of the pipe connections.

(f) Openings for pipes through outside walls below the ground level shall be made water tight.

(g) Oil supply lines to burners shall be provided with approved strainers.

(Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-52. Valves.

(a) Readily accessible shut-off valves of approved type shall be installed in oil supply lines close to gravity and pressure supply tanks. Shut-off valves of approved type shall be installed on each side of oil strainers which are not a part of the oil burner unit and on the discharge and suction side of oil pumps which pump directly to the burner but which are not a part of the burner unit.

(b) Where a shut-off valve is installed in the discharge line of an oil pump, an approved pressure relief valve shall be connected into the discharge line between the pump and the shut-off valve and arranged to return surplus oil to the storage tank or to by-pass it around the pump.

(c) Control valves shall be provided with stuffing box of liberal size, containing a removable cupped bland designed to compress the packing against the valve stem and arranged so as to facilitate removal. Valves shall be designed to close against the supply, and to prevent withdrawal of stem by continued operation of the handwheel. Packing affected by the oil or by heat shall not be used.

(Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-53. Preheating of oil.

Preheating of oil, where necessary, shall be done by steam, hot water or approved electric heaters. Heaters shall be substantially constructed with all joints made oil tight. Thermometers shall be installed at suitable locations to indicate the temperature of the heated oil. Heaters shall be by-passed or provided with suitable means to prevent abnormal pressure. (Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-54. Oil burner controls.

(a) Oil burning equipment shall be provided with some means for manually stopping the flow of oil to the burner, from a conveniently located point at a safe distance from the burner. With electrically driven equipment this may be accomplished by a switch in the motor supply circuit, placed near the entrance to the room where the burner is located. A quick-closing valve in the oil supply line may also be used.

(b) Automatically operated oil burners used in connection with hot water, steam or warm air heating systems shall be equipped with approved automatic devices to shut down the burner in the event of undue pressure in a steam boiler or overheating within a hot water boiler or warm air furnace.

(c) Automatically operated oil burners used in connection with steam heating systems shall be equipped with approved automatic devices to prevent the operation of the burner at all times when there is not sufficient water in the boiler.

(d) In systems where steam or air is used for atomizing the oil, the equipment shall be so arranged that in case of interruption of the atomizing supply, the oil supply will be immediately shut off.

(Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-55. Electric wiring and equipment.

Electric wiring and equipment used in connection with oil burning equipment shall be installed in accordance with the National Electric Code. (Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-56. Installation of burners.

(a) Oil burners shall be securely installed in a workmanlike manner, in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer, by qualified mechanics experienced in making such installations.

(b) All furnaces containing oil burner installation shall be set on a metal, concrete or other approved non-combustible and rigid foundation. Such foundation shall not rest on or be joined to any wood or other combustible material.

(c) Said furnaces shall be so installed as to be separated on all sides by not less than 12 inches of air space from all wood or other combustible material, and furnace and smoke pipe shall be so set as to be at least two feet from overhead joists, and to the under side of said joists shall be fastened a solid asbestos sheet of 1/8 inch thickness extending not less than 12 inches on either side of smoke pipe.

(d) Where oil burners are installed in furnaces or originally designed for solid fuel, the ash door of the furnace shall be removed or bottom ventilation otherwise provided to prevent the accumulation of vapors in the ash pit, unless the burner is of a type which mechanically purges the ash pit.

(e) Boilers and furnaces in which oil burners are installed shall be connected to flues having sufficient draft at all times to assure safe operation of the burner; a suitable draft regulating device shall be installed where necessary to prevent excessive draft. Smoke pipe dampers, if any, shall be such that they cannot close off more than 80 percent of the internal cross section area of the smoke pipe.

(f) Rooms in which oil burners are located shall be provided with adequate ventilation to assure continuous complete combustion of the oil.

(g) Contractors installing industrial oil burning systems shall furnish diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling valves, one of which shall be posted near the oil burning equipment and another at some point which will be accessible in case of fire at the burners.

(Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)

Section 9-57. Modifications of requirements in unusual circumstances.

Where the circumstances or conditions of any particular installation are unusual and such as to render the strict application of this article impracticable, the town may permit such modifications as will provide a substantially equivalent degree of safety. (Ordinance 13 effective 1/1/1941)